Very Rare and Life-Threatening Complications of Bocavirus Bronchiolitis: Pneumomediastinum and Bilateral Pneumothorax
PETMEZCI, Mey Talip
KIHTIR, Hasan Serdar
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Human bocavirus (HBoV), that was first identified in 2005 and classified in Parvoviridae family, is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus, responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections, especially in young children. Although HBoV generally causes self-limited influenza-like illness, it may also lead to pneumonia, bronchiolitis, croup and asthma attacks. In this report, a case of acute bronchiolitis complicated with pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax caused by HBoV has been presented. A three-year-old boy was referred to our pediatric intensive care unit with a two day history of fever, tachypnea, hypoxia and respiratory failure. On auscultation, there were widespread expiratory wheezing and inspiratory crackles. The chest radiography yielded paracardiac infiltration and air trapping on the right lung and infiltration on the left lung. The patient had leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein level. On the second day of admission, respiratory distress worsened and chest radiography revealed right pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema in bilateral cervical region and left chest wall. He was intubated because of respiratory failure. In the thorax computed tomography, pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax were detected and right chest tube was inserted. Repetitive blood and tracheal aspirate cultures were negative. A nasopharyngeal swab sample was analyzed by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction method with the use of viral respiratory panel (FTD (R) Respiratory Pathogens 21 Kit, Fast-Track Diagnostics), and positive result was detected for only HBoV. On the ninth day of admission, pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax improved completely and he was discharged with cure. In conclusion, HBoV bronchiolitis may progress rare but severe complications, it should be kept in mind as an etiological agent of the respiratory tract infections especially children younger than five years old.
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