Cardiovascular Insights for the Appropriate Management of Chronic Venous Disease: A Narrative Review of Implications for the Use of Venoactive Drugs
De Luca, Leonardo
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Evidence suggests that chronic venous disease (CVD) may be a cardiovascular disorder, as patients with CVD are prone to developing arterial (atherosclerosis) and venous (thromboembolism) diseases. This may be partly explained by shared risk factors. Thus, patients with CVD or cardiovascular disease require careful history-taking and physical assessment to identify coexisting pathologies and risk factors. This article summarises a symposium at the XIX World Congress of the International Union of Phlebology held in Istanbul, Turkey, in September 2022. Common pathophysiological features of CVD and cardiovascular disease are endothelial injury, hypercoagulability and systemic inflammation. In CVD, inflammation primarily affects the microcirculation, with changes in capillary permeability, vein wall and valve remodelling and increase in oxidative stress. Once patients develop symptoms/signs of CVD, they tend to reduce their physical activity, which may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Data show that the presence of CVD is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including peripheral arterial disease and heart failure (HF), and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events increases with CVD severity. In addition, patients with cardiovascular disease, particularly those with HF, are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and should be assessed for VTE risk if they are hospitalised with cardiovascular disease. Therefore, CVD management must include a multi-specialty approach to assess risk factors associated with both the venous and arterial systems. Ideally, treatment should focus on the resolution of endothelial inflammation to control both CVD and cardiovascular disease. International guidelines recommend various conservative treatments, including venoactive drugs (VADs), to improve the symptoms/signs of CVD. Micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) is a VAD, with high-quality evidence supporting its use in relieving symptoms/signs of CVD and improving quality of life. Moreover, in large-scale observational studies, MPFF has shown superior effectiveness in real-world populations compared with other VADs. [MediaObject not available: see fulltext.].
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