Spondylometaepiphyseal Dysplasia Short Limb-Abnormal Calcification Type in Turkish Patients Reveals a Novel Mutation and New Features
Ali, Bassam R.
Gulec, Elif Yilmaz
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Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia short limb-abnormal calcification type (SMED-SL/AC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It is a severe dwarfism syndrome with a characteristic feature of progressive calcification of epiphyseal and other cartilaginous tissues. It is caused by pathogenic variants in the DDR2 gene encoding the discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2. Thus far, 37 cases and 8 pathogenic variants have been reported. Most of the reported cases are of Middle Eastern and Puerto Rican origins. Only one Turkish case has been reported previously with a novel truncating variant p.(R489*). Here, we report 2 new cases, 1 with a novel variant p.(S311G) and 1 with a splice site variant c.2283+1G>A. In addition, we reviewed a previously reported case, and sequencing of stored DNA revealed the recently reported nonsense variant p.(R489*) as the underlying cause. Therefore, our data increase the number of SMED-SL/AC Turkish patients with molecular results to 4. Furthermore, we compared the features of Turkish patients with other reported cases and expanded the characteristics of the disorder with new features such as triventricular hydrocephalus, intracranial hemorrhage, hypopigmentation of hair, dry and scaly skin, arthralgia, and hypocalcemia. We also compared the pathogenic variants of Turkish patients with other variants, aiming to explain the mechanism leading to a more severe and early fatal course in Turkish patients.
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