An analysis of Classification of Revelation Types Made by al-Zamakhshari and al-Baydawi in Terms of the Sciences of the Qur'an
Yuksek, Muhammed Isa
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The Sciences of the Qur'an contain information about the process of Qur'an and its structural characteristics, language and stylistic features, as well as statistical data on the content of the Qur'an. This information, which contributes significantly to the understanding of the Qur'an, is generally classified within the relevant narratives and the classifications are sometimes associated with verses. In this context, the way in which the Sciences of the Qur'an explain the verses, which do not act solely on methodical premises, differs from the Qur'an exegesis books. In the Sciences of the Qur'an, the subject of revelation forms are classified within the frame of the narrations, and the 51st verse of the Surat al-Shura is frequently referred to. In other words, the related classifications are matched with the 51st verse of the Surat al-Shura. In the exegesis, this verse is handled more comprehensively considering its context and the literal possibilities. There are two remarkable comments about this verse in terms of its reflection in the revelation classifications. However, on the contrary, it is possible to encounter examples where the verse is subject to specific discussions. One of them belongs to Jar Allah al-Zamakhshari (d.538/1144) and the other to Nasir al-Din al-Baydawi (d. 685/1286). When the exegesis of al-Zamakhshari and al-Bayclawi are examined, it is seen that this verse is the subject of ru'yat Allah (seeing Allah) discussion between Mu'tazila and Ahl al-Sunnah and the classifications are made in this context. However, it is interesting to note that the classification of al-Zamakhshari is more suitable for the perspective of the Sciences of the Qur'an. In this study, the codes of the determinations made by al-Zamakhshari and al-Baydawi related to the 51st verse of Surat al-Shura was read on the commentaries. While al-Zamakhshari explains this verse as a proof for the argument that God cannot be seen, al-Baydawi develops an example of reactionary interpretation upon Zamakhshari's view. The Sciences of the Qur'an (as a discipline), which opens a separate title to the ways of revelation, uses this verse as a template and takes it away from the discussion. In the study, the subjective dimensions of the discussion and classifications made in the context of this verse were evaluated. As a result, it is concluded that a classification similar to classification of al-Zamakhshari has been made in the literature of the Sciences of the Qur'an as it provides more comprehensive framework.
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