Effects of aldosterone blockade on left ventricular function and clinical status during acute myocardial infarction
Cakar, Mehmet Akif
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Objective: Heart failure is frequently a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers and aldosterone receptor blockers have been shown to improve outcomes in this setting. This study aimed to determine the effect of spironolactone on the frequency of clinical heart failure, mortality, rehospitalization and left ventricular functions determined by echocardiography. Material and methods: A total of 82 patients with STEMI hospitalized within 6-12 h of debut of symptoms were included in the study. The patients were randomly assigned into spironolactone (group A) or placebo (group B) groups after informed consent had been obtained. Results: All patients were followed for 6 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups when demographic criteria were compared. The incidence of post-MI angina pectoris, rhythm and conduction disturbance during hospitalization was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A. Although not statistically significant, the incidence of clinical heart failure was slightly lower in Group A than in Group B (5% versus 11%). Left ventricular end-diastolic volumes were slightly lower in Group A than in Group B, although statistically this was not significant. Conclusions: In concordance with these findings, the ejection fraction was slightly higher in Group A than in Group B, although this was not statistically significant (47% versus 44%). This trend continued during a 6-month follow-up after randomization. Our findings suggest that early administration of aldosterone blockers provides additional benefits after AMI, reducing the incidence of post-MI angina pectoris and rhythm and conduction disturbances.
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