Photosystem II Is More Sensitive than Photosystem I to Al3+ Induced Phytotoxicity
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Aluminium (Al) the most abundant metal in the earth's crust is toxic in acid soils (pH < 5.5) mainly in the ionic form of Al3+ species. The ability of crops to overcome Al toxicity varies among crop species and cultivars. Here, we report for a first time the simultaneous responses of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) to Al3+ phytotoxicity. The responses of PSII and PSI in the durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. 'Appulo E') and the triticale (X Triticosecale Witmark cv. 'Dada') were evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analysis and reflection spectroscopy respectively, under control (-Al, pH 6.5) and 148 mu M Al (+Al, pH 4.5) conditions. During control growth conditions the high activity of PSII in 'Appulo E' led to a rather higher electron flow to PSI, which induced a higher PSI excitation pressure in 'Appulo E' than in 'Dada' that presented a lower PSII activity. However, under 148 mu M Al the triticale 'Dada' presented a lower PSII and PSI excitation pressure than 'Appulo E'. In conclusion, both photosystems of 'Dada' displayed a superior performance than 'Appulo E' under Al exposure, while in both cultivars PSII was more affected than PSI from Al3+ phytotoxicity.
- Makale