Extremity and Truncal Dystonias: Botulinum Toxin Applications
Adatepe, Nurten Uzun
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Extremity dystonia (ED) is a disabling condition that may represent an isolated focal symptom or may be part of generalized dystonia. It may develop secondary to any process affecting the contralateral basal ganglia or may be idiopathic. Diffuse or severe dystonia generally improves by administration of various medications and only in rare cases, stereotaxic surgery may be needed. Idiopathic forms or focal symptoms frequently respond to botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections. BoNT type A injection decreases pain and spasms in more than 80% of cases and results in 50-66% functional improvement in daily living activities and motor performance. Furthermore, BoNT injection also provides improvement in some symptoms of generalized dystonia and relieves disabling posture, skin lacerations and pain in more than 80% of patients. BoNT may also be used to accelerate recovery in the postoperative period for a short time since it prevents the spasms.
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