Investigation of the Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Artemisia annua Methanol Extract with the Allium Test
Karaismailoglu, Mehmet Cengiz
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In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Artemisia annua methanol extract on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa was investigated. The onion bulbs were exposed to 450, 900, 1350, and 1800 mg/mL concentrations of the extract for 3, 6, and 12 h. Distilled water was used as a negative control and ethyl methanesulfonate was used as a positive control. The test concentrations were determined according to the doses which are suggested for utilization in alternative medicine and it's multiple. The occurring morphological changes such as reduction of root elongation and discoloration in the onion roots using the extract concentrations are as follows. The mitotic index was determined in both controls and test groups. Generally, the mitotic index decreased when increasing the extract concentration. The mitotic abnormalities were recorded as disturbed prophase, c-mitosis, vagrant chromosome, stickiness, going ahead chromosome, laggards, chromatid bridges, and fragment formation in the anaphase. In this manuscript, the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities, cell death, and impairments in the cell membrane by Artemisia annua extract has been indicated for the first time. Thus, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potency of A. annua extract with different tests were assessed by using the root tip cells of A. cepa, and the use of a determined non-toxic dose was recommended.
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