Turkey’s Aquaculture Sector
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Aquaculture sector, which has an important place in Turkey’s agriculture, has a great value in socio-economic field besides being a valuable source of food. Aquaculture products provide an imported added value to Turkish economy by activities such as providing raw material to the industry, employment creation, helping rural development and food production. Because of this structure, to answer the aquaculture products needs of the increasing population, aquaculture sector of Turkey and its production has made a fast development parallel to the increase in the world aquaculture production. The total aquaculture production of Turkey which was 79.031 t in 2003 has increased to 118.277 t in 2005 and to 158.729 t in 2009. 76.248 t (48%) of this production was made in inland waters and 82.481 t of it was made in marine farms. The most important species are rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with 52% in inland waters, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) with 29% and gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata) with 18% in marine farms. Besides these species, mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio), rainbow trout in marine farms and mussel (Mytilus sp.) are produced in lower amounts. Depending on the 2009 data, there are 1.832 companies operating in the aquaculture sector of Turkey. 1.482 of these companies produce inland fishes with a capacity of 96.842 t and 350 of them produce marine fishes with a capacity of 114.420 t. 80 of the companies which produce marine fishes operate in terrestrial lands in soil pools. The aquaculture production is an important export item in Turkey. The income of exportation of Turkey’s aquaculture sector is over 395 M USD in 2009. 47% of this exportation consists of fresh or chilled fish. As the most important species, sea bass and gilt-head sea bream are exported freshly and 90% of them are sold to European Union countries. When the potential of aquaculture in Turkey and the demand of world market; production of new species com into prominence. With this aim, by the collaboration of production of new species, which is supported and promoted by the government, new marketing strategies that will be planned due to the emerging developments in the area are very important in shaping the future of sector and Turkey.
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